Application of Stem Cell Technology in Antiaging and Aging-Related Diseases
Stem cells are one kind of cells that have the potential of proliferation and differentiation. The human beings are originated from a totipotential stem cell-fertilized egg. After birth, the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells contribute to the development and maturation of individual tissues and organs. After maturation, aging is a phases of the life process, the stem cells within the individual’s tissues ensure the metabolism of different cells and tissues, such as the hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, which ensure there are still enough red blood cells (RBCs) being responsible for the mission of transporting oxygen after a single RBC has completed its 120-day physiological life cycle. After pathological damage and necrosis occurring on the intestinal epithelial cells or tubular epithelial cells, there will be regenerative epithelial cells continuing to maintain the integrity of the structure and function of the intestine and renal tubules. The role of stem cells in the regeneration and repair of tissues and organs is not only because of the ability of proliferation and differentiation of stem cells but also of the secretion function of stem cells, which secrete various growth factors and cytokines to regulate the tissue microenvironment. For example, mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow are important regulators in bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell niche. Mesenchymal stem cells maintain the “stemness” of hematopoietic stem cells by secreting various cytokines.Aging is a phases of the life process, and all creatures obey this rule of nature. Different organs of the body have different time of entering into aging. Aging is reflected in structural changes and reduced function. Among them, the reduction of regeneration and repair capacity is the main feature of aging. As we age, the aging of stem cells in human tissues is a major cause of the decline in tissue regeneration capacity. Therefore, the elderly’s ability of regenerate and repair can be improved by application of advance stem cell technology. It can delay the aging process and treat aged diseases.